Negotiation models


Successful negotiation depends on meticulous pre negotiation preparation and the essentials for this are.

  • Define what OUTCOME you wish.
  • Have clear REASONS as to why you think there is a problem. The reasons should be limited to ones where you have a strong belief in them or they strongly back your proposal.
  • Have EVIDENCE in place to justify your argument.
  • INFORMATION GATHER, so that you know as much as possible about the views, personality, background and culture of the PERSON you are negotiating with.
  • INFORMATION GATHER, as to the OUTSIDE INFLUENCES that may have an impact on the negotiation. E.g. resources/money/outside life.
  • Check if there is ANY POINT IN CONTINUING.
  • If this means yes then look at the OUTCOME in detail and decide what is your bargaining BEST outcome and what the WORST (Your fall back position.) acceptable would be. Think about the outcome in the SHORT/MEDIUM AND LONG TERM.
  • Think of a range of bargaining OPTIONS that might be used.
  • Ensure that the meeting is at the RIGHT TIME and in the RIGHT PLACE. I.e. to ensure there is plenty of time and that you feel comfortable in the environment. (Agenda, ground rules, uninterrupted time to present material, time specific and if limited time to identify how much ground to be covered at 1st meeting.)
  • The actual negotiation is mainly about using SKILLS to achieve your outcome and a list of skills is made out separately. It is also about making sure you are the right person to do the negotiation and not a middle person caught between differing factions.
  • Initially you will need to DISCOVER the desired outcome of the other person andwhat THEIR BEST OFFER is likely to be. (And to acknowledge this and understand the differences.)
  • Can you identify the INTENT of the other person? What is motivating their position
  • The COMMON GROUND of negotiation is that between their best offer and your worst acceptable scenario.


Some of the useful phrases when exploring the common ground are,

  • If you STEP INTO MY SHOES for a minute.
  • When I STEP INTO YOUR SHOES I can see your point of view but…
  • My FEELINGS are that. (Knowing your own and understanding others feelings important.)
  • I believe we are trying to ACHIEVE THE SAME THING.

In general you need to be REALISTIC and try and identify a COLLABORATIVE approach that will try and reach a WIN/WIN result. (Mutual gain)

CONFLICT and then COMPROMISE will lead to a likely WIN/LOSE situation with everybody aware of what they have lost and not positive about the gains.

Collaboration is more likely to occur with negotiation in the “common ground” and conflict if negotiators stick rigidly to their best offer only.


  • Things won’t always resolve and sometimes we need mediation.
  • Negotiation template for dealing with a problem
  • What outcome do you wish?
Short term Medium term Long term
  • What are your reasons for thinking there is a problem?
  • What information do you have about the individual?
  • What other information do you have?
  • What evidence do you have that there is a problem?
  • What options do you have to help create change?
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