• instructional: what is expected to be learned from a session or course
    • explicit
    • implicit
  • educational (long term aims):
    • explicit
    • implicit

Explicit instructional objectives

  1. Identifies desired behaviour
  2. Explicitly describes what learner will do
  3. Describes conditions under which performance will occur
  4. Expected behaviour can be observed
  5. Expected behaviour can be evaluated

Planning cycle

  1. Choose topic area
  2. Objectives
    • choose objectives
    • specify explicit instructional objectives
  3. Topics
    • select relevant topic segments
    • place in appropriate order
    • write introduction and development
    • specify required resources
    • specify pupil activities
  4. Methods
    • select methods
    • place in order of use
  5. Check plan
    • do topics and methods match objectives?
    • if not, modify plan
  6. Teach and monitor class cues of interest/boredom/learning/ bewilderment
  7. Record immediately afterwards, impressions of performance and pupil learning
  8. Read and view
    • read your objectives/lesson plan
    • view lesson in light of 7
    • look for unintended objectives in lesson
  9. Discuss in terms of
    • skills under review
    • suggestions for improvement of skills
    • stated objectives
    • pupil behaviour and learning
    • unintended objectives
  10. Complete
    • summarise main points on lesson plan
  11. Retain
    • completed lesson plan and skill guide
  12. Examine
    • lesson plan before teaching similar topic
  13. Next cycle

Observing teaching (1) Phenomenological (P-type) eg: rating scales (2) Analytical (A-type) eg: consultation maps

Steps of concept teaching

Concepts are classes of stimuli which have common characteristics

  1. Choose a concept
  2. Specify explicit objectives
  3. Topics and methods:
    1. Write a list of positive instances of concept, negative instances, and any instances which are hard to decide.
    2. Identify main important attributes and underline them. Use these in the lesson.
    3. Decide on lecture/discussion/guided discovery (latter usually enjoyed by peers and pupils).
    4. Plan approach and order in which to tackle attributes of concept – especially beginning and end of session.
    5. Introduce concept in familiar or acceptable context.


A set is a device which induces a pupil to attend and learn.Why use set induction?

  1. To focus attention on what is to be learned.
  2. To create a frame of reference before or during a lesson.
  3. To give meaning to a new concept or principle.
  4. To stimulate student interest and involvement.

How to induce a set to learn

  1. Preliminary attention gaining: pausing/looking/waiting
  2. Orientation: select an event, object, process or device which matches objectives.


When to induce a set

  1. At beginning of lesson
  2. When changing topics
  3. Before question and answer session
  4. Before panel discussion
  5. Before films, videos etc (especially)

Examples of simple set induction devices

  • Do something unusual at beginning of lesson
  • Use a set of instructions
  • Use an announcement
  • Ask a provocative question
  • Use an analogy
  • Use a “startle” set


  1. Cognitive – focussing attention on major points
  2. Social – giving a sense of acheivement (best used only after difficult sessions)


    • compliance pupil expected to comply with command worded as a question
    • rhetorical pupil not expected to reply – teacher answers own question
    • recall does pupil recall what is seen or read
    • comprehension does pupil understand what he recalls
    • application can pupil apply rules/techniques to solve problems with single correct answers
    • analysis can pupil identify motives and causes, make inferencea and give examples to support statements
    • synthesis can pupil make predictions, solve problems or produce interesting juxtapositions of ideas and images
    • evaluation can pupil judge quality of ideas, or problem solutions, or works of art. Can he give rationally based opinions on issues or controversies

Signals of pupil attention

  1. Posture
  2. Head orientation
  3. Face
  4. Activities
  5. Responses
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