- instructional: what is expected to be learned from a session or course
- educational (long term aims):
Explicit instructional objectives
- Identifies desired behaviour
- Explicitly describes what learner will do
- Describes conditions under which performance will occur
- Expected behaviour can be observed
- Expected behaviour can be evaluated
- Choose topic area
- choose objectives
- specify explicit instructional objectives
- select relevant topic segments
- place in appropriate order
- write introduction and development
- specify required resources
- specify pupil activities
- select methods
- place in order of use
- Check plan
- do topics and methods match objectives?
- if not, modify plan
- Teach and monitor class cues of interest/boredom/learning/ bewilderment
- Record immediately afterwards, impressions of performance and pupil learning
- Read and view
- read your objectives/lesson plan
- view lesson in light of 7
- look for unintended objectives in lesson
- Discuss in terms of
- skills under review
- suggestions for improvement of skills
- stated objectives
- pupil behaviour and learning
- unintended objectives
- summarise main points on lesson plan
- completed lesson plan and skill guide
- lesson plan before teaching similar topic
- Next cycle
Observing teaching (1) Phenomenological (P-type) eg: rating scales (2) Analytical (A-type) eg: consultation maps
Steps of concept teaching
Concepts are classes of stimuli which have common characteristics
- Choose a concept
- Specify explicit objectives
- Topics and methods:
- Write a list of positive instances of concept, negative instances, and any instances which are hard to decide.
- Identify main important attributes and underline them. Use these in the lesson.
- Decide on lecture/discussion/guided discovery (latter usually enjoyed by peers and pupils).
- Plan approach and order in which to tackle attributes of concept – especially beginning and end of session.
- Introduce concept in familiar or acceptable context.
A set is a device which induces a pupil to attend and learn.Why use set induction?
- To focus attention on what is to be learned.
- To create a frame of reference before or during a lesson.
- To give meaning to a new concept or principle.
- To stimulate student interest and involvement.
How to induce a set to learn
- Preliminary attention gaining: pausing/looking/waiting
- Orientation: select an event, object, process or device which matches objectives.
When to induce a set
- At beginning of lesson
- When changing topics
- Before question and answer session
- Before panel discussion
- Before films, videos etc (especially)
Examples of simple set induction devices
- Do something unusual at beginning of lesson
- Use a set of instructions
- Use an announcement
- Ask a provocative question
- Use an analogy
- Use a “startle” set
- Cognitive – focussing attention on major points
- Social – giving a sense of acheivement (best used only after difficult sessions)
- LOWER LEVEL
- compliance pupil expected to comply with command worded as a question
- rhetorical pupil not expected to reply – teacher answers own question
- recall does pupil recall what is seen or read
- comprehension does pupil understand what he recalls
- application can pupil apply rules/techniques to solve problems with single correct answers
- HIGHER LEVEL
- analysis can pupil identify motives and causes, make inferencea and give examples to support statements
- synthesis can pupil make predictions, solve problems or produce interesting juxtapositions of ideas and images
- evaluation can pupil judge quality of ideas, or problem solutions, or works of art. Can he give rationally based opinions on issues or controversies
Signals of pupil attention
- Head orientation